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How optional and error values are returned in iceoryx🔗

Many parts of the iceoryx C++ API follow a functional programming approach and allow the user to specify functions which handle the possible cases, e.g. what should happen when data is received.

This is very flexible but requires using the monadic types cxx::expected and cxx::optional, which we introduce in the following sections.


The type iox::cxx::optional<T> is used to indicate that there may or may not be a value of a specific type T available. This is essentially the 'maybe monad' in functional programming. Assuming we have some optional (usually the result of some computation)

optional<int> result = someComputation();

we can check for its value using

    auto value = result.value();
    // do something with the value
    // handle the case that there is no value

A shorthand to get the value is

auto value = *result;


Accessing the value if there is no value terminates the application, so it must be checked beforehand.

We can achieve the same with the functional approach by providing a function for both cases.

result.and_then([](int& value) { /*do something with the value*/ })
    .or_else([]() { /*handle the case that there is no value*/ });

Notice that we get the value by reference, so if a copy is desired it has to be created explicitly in the lambda or function we pass.

The optional can be initialized from a value directly

optional<int> result = 73;
result = 37;

If the optional is default initialized, it is automatically set to its null value of type iox::cxx::nullopt_t. This can be also done directly by using the constant iox::cxx::nullopt

result = iox::cxx::nullopt;

For a complete list of available functions see optional.hpp. The iox::cxx::optional behaves like the std::optional except that it does not throw exceptions and has no undefined behavior.


iox::cxx::expected<T, E> generalizes iox::cxx::optional by admitting a value of another type E instead of no value at all, i.e. it contains either a value of type T or E. In this way, expected is a special case of the 'either monad'. It is usually used to pass a value of type T or an error that may have occurred, i.e. E is the error type. E must contain a static member or an enum value called INVALID_STATE. Alternatively an ErrorTypeAdapter can be implemented.

For more information on how it is used for error handling see

Assume we have E as an error type, then we can create a value

iox::cxx::expected<int, E> result(iox::cxx::success<int>(73));

and use the value or handle a potential error

if (!result.has_error())
    auto value = result.value();
    // do something with the value
    auto error = result.get_error();
    // handle the error

If we need an error value, we set

result = iox::cxx::error<E>(errorCode);

which assumes that E can be constructed from an errorCode.

We again can employ a functional approach like this:

auto handleValue = [](int& value) { /*do something with the value*/ };
auto handleError = [](E& value) { /*handle the error*/ };

There are more convenience functions such as value_or which provides the value or an alternative specified by the user. These can be found in expected.hpp.

Note that when we move an expected, the origin is set to the error value E::INVALID_STATE and has_error() will always return true:

cxx::expected<int, E> result(iox::cxx::success<int>(1421));
cxx::expected<int, E> anotherResult = std::move(result);

if (result.has_error()) // is now true since it was moved
   result.get_error(); // returns E::INVALID_STATE